- Camera flare
Nonimaging light caused by the reflection of light outside the scene entering the camera and reflecting of its internal components on to the sensor.
A lens hood?
is used to prevent camera flare. Unfortunately, in some cases a hood large enough to block the extraneous light is also large enough to block the field of view. In such circumstances, a gobo
may be a better solution.
- Camera Obscura
The principal, known since ancient times, that enables an optical device to project its surroundings onto a screen.
In 1038 A.D., Arab scholar Al Hazen?
described a working model of the camera obscura but did not construct an actual device. In 1267 A.D. Roger Bacon?
was inspired by Al Hazen's work to construct devices that created convincing optical illusions and later to project images of the Sun, a technique that was used to safely view solar eclipses.
The principal was first detailed in writings by Leonardo da Vinci?
in 1490 A.D.
- CAPR 60-1
The Civil Air Patrol regulation covering Flight Management.
- Center-weighted average metering
Center-weighted Average Metering is a most common metering method and is the default for those digital cameras which don't offer metering mode selection. This method averages the exposure of the entire frame but gives extra weight to the central part of the scene. This method assumes that you are most interested in what is in front of the scene, so the camera tries to expose this part properly.
This method is designed for conditions where your subject is in the middle of the frame, and the background contains bright lights, dark shadows or other extreme lighting situations that may confuse the metering in the center of your image.
- Color Temperature
A measure in degrees on the Kelvin temperature scale?
of color warmth or coolness.
The colors perceives as cool (e.g. blue) map to higher readings on the Kelvin (K) scale. Artistically warmer colors have lower K readings.
A measure of the degree to which a light source strikes an object at a uniform angle. High contrast
light sources are associated with a single direction, while low contrast
light sources are omni-directional.
Other factors such as composition, exposure, and processing also may influence the contrast within a particular photograph.
- Crop factor
The ratio of dimensions of a camera's imaging area compared to a reference format. Typically, crop factor is used to compare digital cameras capabilities, using 35mm film cameras as the reference format.
- Green - 1.3x (Cannon)
- Red - 1.5x (Nikon DX)
- Blue - 1.6x (Cannon)
- Full frame? - same size as 35mm film (Nikon FX and Cannon full-frame)